Scientific production and capitalist reproduction: intellectual property as a means of valorization
AbstractThis article seeks to investigate the capital invested in scientific research and innovation, which are valued by intellectual property, in the light of Marxist theory. Although Marx did not live to examine the actual subsumption of scientific production to capital and the development of monopoly capital, his understanding of this mode of production provides grounds to reflect upon this new form of valorization. I approach the subject through two questions: the problem of value creation by scientific waged labor and the place of capitals that are valued by scientific and innovation patents in the global process of capitalist reproduction. I aim to relate this new form of valorization with the deepening of what Marx called the main contradiction of developed capitalism (the contradiction between the expansion of the productive forces and the narrowing of the bases of valorization of capital) and thus offer an alternative interpretation, avoiding the recent theses that are quick to assume the obsolescence of the Marxian categories. This article seeks, on the contrary, to demonstrate the actuality of Marx's work.
FAUSTO, Ruy. Marx: Lógica e Política - Investigações para uma reconstrução do sentido da dialética. Tomo III: São Paulo: Editora 34, 2002.
GORZ, André. O Imaterial - conhecimento, valor e capital. Tradução de Celso Azzan Júnior. São Paulo: Annablume, 2005.
MARX, Karl. O Capital – Crítica da economia política – Livro primeiro. Tradução de Regis Barbosa e Flávio R. Kothe. Coordenação e revisão de Paul Singer. Coleção Os economistas Vols. I(a) e II(b). São Paulo: Nova Cultural, 1985.
MARX, Karl. O Capital – Crítica da economia política – Livro terceiro. Tradução de Regis Barbosa e Flávio R. Kothe. Coordenação e revisão de Paul Singer. Coleção Os economistas Vols. IV(a) e V(b). São Paulo: Nova Cultural, 1986.
MARX, Karl. Grundrisse: Manuscritos econômicos de 1857-1858: esboços da crítica da economia política. Tradução de Mário Duayer e Nélio Schneider, São Paulo: Boitempo; Rio de Janeiro: Ed. UFRJ, 2011.
RUSSEL, Kyle. “Apple has ‘objectively insane’ patent demands for Samsung”, publicado em Business Insider. Disponível em: businessinsider.com. Acesso em: 09/04/2015.
THUSWOHL, Maurício, “Legalizados há dez anos, transgênicos vivem ‘apoteose’ no Brasil”, Carta Maior, 11 de novembro de 2013. Disponível em: reporterbrasil.org.br. Acesso em: 09/04/2015.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.1) Authors maintain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution which allows the sharing of the work with the acknowledgment of authorship and initial publication in this journal. 2) Authors are authorized to take additional contracts separately, for non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in this journal (e.g. publishing in an institutional repository or as a book chapter), authorship recognition and initial publication in this journal. 3) Authors are allowed and encouraged to publish and distribute their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on their personal page) at any point before or during the editorial process, as can generate productive changes, as well as increase the impact and reference of the published work (See The Effect of Free Access).